Radiotherapy uses ionizing radiation for the treatment of patients with cancer. There are two modalities: internal radiotherapy and external radiotherapy.
Internal radiotherapy is also called “brachytherapy”. In brachytherapy, special radioactive agents are placed into the tissue that is involved by tumor or the cavity, wherein the tumor is located in. Very high dose of radiation can be delivered, when radioactive agents are placed into or very close to the tumor. Thus, the tumor is irradiated at very high doses, while protection of healthy tissues is maximized.
On the other hand, X-rays generated in a completely electrical environment are targeted to the patient at 80- to 100-cm distance in external radiotherapy. External radiotherapy can use X-rays or photon bundles along with radioactive particles. For example, the electron bundles used in clinical routine are particular radiotherapy. In addition to electron bundles that are recently used in many clinics, proton treatment gains a wide range of use. This modality is substantially costly, as generation of protons requires extremely advanced technology and a very large area. Therefore, it is available in a limited number of centers worldwide and there is no proton treatment center in our country. Particular radiation that uses photon or electron bundles is far cheaper and commonly used worldwide relative to the proton treatment and it offers very promising outcomes in the treatment.